Tver is the capital of Tver region, Russia.
The first written record of Tver is dated 1164, but it is throught that the town was founded in 1135. Tver was founded by the Novgorod people. Some hisrorians think that the name of the town comes from Russian word "tverd" meaning a fortress. In 1247 Tver became the center of the Great Tver Principality. It’s first Prince was Prince Yaroslav who fought for the political unity of the ancient Russia. In XIII and XIV Tver became the center for counter-offensive against the Tartar Yoke.
Tver people were the first to rise against the Tartars. The Tver Prince Michail Tverskoy rallied the Tver warrios to fight agaistthe tartar yoke. He perished in the captivity but saved Tver people from the tartar raid. The monument to Prince Michail Tverskoy stands in the city park on the right bank of the Volga River.
In XV it competed with Moscow for the leadership in ancient Russian state, and in 1485 Tver Principality became a part of the Moscow Russia. In the middle ages, Tver was one of the main centers of industry and trade. The town was famous for skillful builders, arms producers and artists. Catherine the Great intended to make Tver a model for provincial Russian towns. Tver was a wooden city and its buildings have not preserved up to the time. Many of them were either burned down during the great fire of 1763 or destroyed later. From 1931 till 1990 the town was called Kalinin after revolutioner Mikhail Kalinin.
Today Tver is one of the largest industrial, scientific and culture centers of Russia.
Tver has many cultural esteblishments, including several theatres, museums and churches, four Universites, many colleges, a Philharmonic Society etc.Tver is famous for its unique historical monuments, ancient monasteries, convents and temples. The oldest building in the city is the White Trinity Church dating back to the XVI century. There are also three churches of other religions.
The most impressive Tver sight is the Putevoy Palace designed by the famous architects Matvey Kazakov and Carlo Rossi in the XVIII-XIX centuries. Today the palace houses the Picture Gallery that contains rich collection of Russian paintings. Portraits by outstanding masters Rokotov, Antropov, Borovikovsky and others are on display.
There are 3 theatres and 4 museums in the town. They are the Historical Museum, the Literary Museum, the Museum of Local Lore and the Saltykov-Schedrin Museum. Tver is also famous for its Art Gallery. Tver Art Gallery is the only provincial museum in Russia housed in an Emperor’s palace. The museum is one of the first in provincial Russian museums founded by the efforts of the public.
There are monuments to the famous fabulist Krylov, writer Saltykov Shedrin and poet Alexander Pushkin in Tver. But the symbol of Tver is the monument to Afanasy Nikitin who was a Tver merchant and the first European who visited India. Sights, nature, easy access and proximity to Moscow and Saint-Petersburg make Tver a popular weekend destination.