Murmansk is an administrative centre of the Murmansk region and the biggest city in the limits of the Polar Circle. The territory of the city is 150 sq.km. The territory of Murmansk region is about 500 thousand sq.km. The population of Murmansk is 340 000 people. The population of the Murmansk region is about 999 thousand people, including 92% of urban and 8% of rural population.
On October 4, 1916 a port city called Romanov-on-Amur was founded. It was situated close to the Kolsky Bay and a new railroad. In 1917 it gained status of a city and was renamed Murmansk. Murmansk lies on the peninsula washed by the Barentsevo Sea and White Sea
Murmansk has it’s own scientific and research capacities. Knipovich Polar Scientific and Research Institute of Sea Fish Industry and Oceanography, Institute of Sea Biology and Polar Institute of Geophysics are located in Murmansk.
There are several cultural attractions as well. The regional Puppet Theatre founded in 1933, Regional Philarmony (1975), Drama Theatre (1939), Theatre of North Fleet, Regional Culture Palace (1933), Universal Scientific Library are open for visitors. The Universal Scientific Library is one of the biggest libraries in the north-west of Russia. It was founded in 1938 and disposes about 2,5 mln publications, including the ones in Laplander language.
There are several monuments in Murmansk including the one in honour of Kirill and Mefody who developed Slav alphabet and written literature, the memorial in honour of anti-fascist coalition in the WWII and the Heroes of the War.
The city hasmanyuseums including Regional Museum, Historical Museum of Polar Olympiads, Art Museum, Naval Museum and Aviation Museum of the Northern Fleet.
Murmask sea port is the biggest non-freezing port in Russia located inside the Polar Circle. It transports about 12 mln tons a year. It is a big trade port. In Murmask there is a base for powerful atomic ice-breakers. Famous ‘Cheluskin’ ice-breaker departed from the port in 1933 and ‘Ermak’ ice-breaker finished it’s sailing in Murmansk (now stands in Saint-Petersburg).
Passenger and cargo transportation as well as the ice-breakers are controlled by the Murmansk Navigation, the state company.
Despite it’s location, Murmansk does not stay separately from other Russian cities and towns. Airlines, motor roads and railway connect it with Moscow, Saint-Petersburg and other The total length of the railroads in the Murmansk region makes up about 891 km. The main stations in the region include Murmansk, Apatity, Olenegorsk and Kandalaksha.
The total length of motor roads in the region is about 4359 km.
There are 2 big airports in Murmansk called “Murmansk” in Murmashi village and “Khibiny” in Apatity city. They suggest international flights to Norvay, Finland and Sweden.