Chelyabinskaya Region is located at the boundary between Europe and Asia in the southern Ural Mountains and adjacent plain.
The Ural Mountains cut across the northwestern part of the region, where the highest point is 1640 m above sea level. Rolling hills alternate with valleys in the eastern part of the region. The central part is also hilly, with elevation drops averaging about 100-200 m.
Due to its location deep in the European continent, Chelyabinskaya Region has a continental climate with long cold winters (from November until March), and short warm summers.
The city of Chelyabinsk was founded on the Miass River in September 1736 as a fortress on the route from the Trans-Ural (Zauralye) region to Orenburg. In 1743, it became the center of the large province of Isetsk. Between February and April 1774, Chelyabinsk Fortress was in the hands of Emelyan Pugachev's forces [Pugachev was a Cossack rebel leader]. Chelyabinsk remained a Cossack military settlement until 1781.
For more than 100 years, right up to the Revolution of 1917, Chelyabinsk was a small and undistinguished district town of Orenburg Territory. The Cossacks left it and founded small villages nearby, some of which later became part of the city. Cossacks from the Chelyabinsk area fought in the Patriotic War of 1812 as part of the 3rd Orenburg regiment. They took part in battles near Leipzig, fought for Paris, and took part in other battles as well.
During this period, Chelyabinsk was known as a place of political exile. Convicts being transported to Siberia passed through it; and future famous Bolsheviks like Joseph Stalin, Andrei Bubnov, and Evgeny Preobrazhensky spent time in the Chelyabinsk transit prison. Completion of the Samara-Zlatoust railway and the start of service from Moscow to Chelyabinsk in 1892 put the city on the map, and within a few years, it had became one of Russia's largest trading centers, especially for grain, butter, meat, and tea.
Another railway line to Ekaterinburg began operating in 1896. The population of Chelyabinsk increased several times in only a few years. A large number of villages grew up around the station, and the city's area increased by a third.
At that time, a migrant village with its own church, hospital, residential barracks, and other necessary buildings sprang up around the railway station. Chelyabinsk became an important intermediate point for migrants, a kind of "gateway to Siberia." Industry and education expanded rapidly, and the first jointly owned factory, Stal and K (which now manufactures road-building machinery), began production.
A women's gymnasium and vocational, religious, and business schools opened, and a civic center and Railway Club were built.
During the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Chelyabinsk played a major role in servicing military units.
At the time of the First World War (1914-1918), Chelyabinsk was a training center for army reserves, with training and formation of military units going on at three military camps. During the Russian Civil War (1918-1921), a battle took place near the city between units of the 3rd Red Army commanded by Field Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky and the army of Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak [Supreme Leader of the anti-Bolshevik government in Omsk during the Russian Civil War], which ended in victory for the "Reds".
Chelyabinsk Province was formed in 1919 and then reorganized into Chelyabinsk District of Ural Region in 1924. The province was subsequently enlarged, resulting in the formation of Chelyabinskaya Region on January 17, 1934. The region's present-day boundaries were formed on February 6, 1943, when Kurgan Region was split off from it.
During the period of the first five-year plans, Chelyabinsk was transformed into one of the country's largest industrial centers. Only two factories were operating in Chelyabinsk in 1919, but over the next few years, other factories started up, including a tractor plant, an abrasives plant, a ferroalloy plant, a machine tool plant, and a zinc smelter.
In the 1930s, the whole country knew Chelyabinsk as the builder of "industry giants," and many prominent people, such as Vyacheslav Molotov, Kliment Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, and Bubnov, visited the city. By the 1940s, dozens of industries were operating in Chelyabinsk.
During the Second World War, Chelyabinsk was vitally important as a base city, at a time when the Urals were the buttress of the frontline forces. Many factories were evacuated here from the center of the country, and it was here that the world famous Katyusha rocket and T-34 tank were produced.
In June 1941, the entire 85th Chelyabinsk Division perished in the first battles near Grodno. Several night-bomber regiments formed in Chelyabinsk flew to the front in the fall. In 1943, four breakthrough artillery divisions, six artillery brigades, and several artillery regiments, all made up of volunteers, were formed in Chelyabinsk and elsewhere in the region, along with four mobile heavy artillery regiments recruited from among graduates of the Chelyabinsk Higher Tank Command college.
Chelyabinskaya Region was also of inestimable value to the country in the postwar years, for example, when it sent the first group of regional Young Communists (Komsomoltsy) to the virgin lands in February 1954.
Chelyabinsk continued to improve and expand in the following years. Industry developed rapidly; one notable year was 1984, when the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (ChTZ) turned out its one-millionth tractor. The region's cultural life also changed, as new movie theaters and museums opened and a whole system of art and cultural schools grew up. Chelyabinsk was transformed from a provincial town into a dynamic industrial and cultural center of the Urals.
In 1987, archeologists made a historical discovery at digs in the southern part of the region, where they uncovered the fortress of Arkaim. This unique Bronze Age monument had been a fortress of the so-called Country of Proto-Cities consisting of 20 fortresses dating to the time of the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations.
Archeologist N.K. Minko was conducting digs in Chelyabinsk as early as the beginning of the 20th century. He discovered and partially explored hundreds of Sarmatian burial mounds (kurgans) dating from the Bronze Age. Minko and his students also discovered a large number of kurgans on the shores of Smolino, Isakovo, and Sineglazovo lakes. The archeological find of 1987, as well as other finds, prove that people inhabited the territory of modern-day Chelyabinsk even in the depths of antiquity.
The population of Chelyabinsk has grown more than 1080 times in just over 300 years. Whereas the first residents of Chelyabinsk fortress were Cossacks, at the beginning of the 21st century, Chelyabinsk is a multinational city populated by representatives of nearly 100 nationalities.
Chelyabinskaya Region has nearly 3170 lakes, including many stunningly beautiful ones in the northeast. It also has a wide variety of therapeutic bathing resources, such as organic and mineral mud and alkaline water. The Ilmen Mineralogical Reserve
located on the eastern slopes of the Urals is famous for more than 70 kinds of rocks and 260 minerals that have been discovered there.
Chelyabinskaya Region is situated in the watershed of the Volga, Ural, and Tobol river
basins, which have an average annual flow of 6.22 km3 through the region. The largest lakes
are Turgoyak, Chebarkul
, and Irtyash
. Turgoyak Lake
is a world’s most valuable reservoir of rarely clear drinking water.
Chelyabinskaya Region lies within the alpine forest, forest parkland, and steppe zones, each of which has its own special features. This unique geographical location accounts for the diversity of the region's natural landscapes, from the remnants of ancient taiga forests to pine forests and open expanses of steppe. Most of the forested area is covered with birch and poplar woods, along with some spruce, pine, and fir.
Scanty vegetation changing to a sparse growth of larch, spruce and birch on mountain slopes is characteristic of the alpine forest zone. A variety of herbaceous plants, berries (rose hips, currants, stone berries, bird cherries, and blackberries), and mushrooms grow in the forests. Culture
Chelyabinskaya Region has 15 theaters and 3 concert organizations. Nine of these theaters (five state and four municipal theaters), an art gallery, a philharmonic and organ hall, a circus, several museums, 19 movie theaters, a municipal jazz center, and a contemporary art center are located in the capital.
Tours by Russian and foreign artistic companies add variety to the region's cultural life. The Kamerata chamber theater festival and an international organ music festival are held annually in Chelyabinsk.
The region has an extensive system of art and cultural schools, including three higher educational institutions: the Chelyabinsk State Institute of Art and Culture, the Chelyabinsk Higher Music School, and the Magnitogorsk State Conservatory. There are more than 20 artistic unions, associations, and groups in the region.
Chelyabinskaya region is famous for mountain ski resorts
. Comfortable tourist complexes and sport centres in accordance with modern quality standards have been created in the Urals. Besides ski sport, aquatics, winter kiting, volleyball, mini-football, tennis
and othbier kinds of sport are wide spread in the region. Cycling tourism
is very popular, bushwalks and horse back riding routes
, fishing and hunting
can be interesting for exotic rest lovers.
Southern Ural has been attracting people with favourable climate and geography since ancient times. Considerable archeological findings that have become region’s attraction prove this. There have been discovered a lot of dwelling sites of the Stone Age, cave drawings are bright examples of primeval art. An international finding of the kind was discovered in the region in the 20th century: “Countries of cities” of the Bronze Age consisting of more than 20 fortifications.
Such exceptional cultural and historical monuments as a mausoleum and Kesen area
most northern among remained medieval monuments and the Paleolithic time sanctuary – Ignatjevskaya cave
with cave drawings of the Stone Age attract tourists’ attention. There are more than 200 territories under special protection in the Chelyabinskaya region. Among them is a famous state reserve Ilmensky
rich in various mineral resources and a museum-reserve “Arkaim”
– one of the “Countries of cities” settlements. Nature reserves “Taganaj” and “Zyuratkul”
are worth a visit.
“Taganaj” is one of the most picturesque places in the world. Sheer cliffs match river valleys and clear mountain-brooks are inhabited with trout. “Zyuratkul” is famous for practically untouched nature. There are very few such places even in the Chelyabinskaya region. There have been discovered 11 dwelling sites of the Stone Age along Lake Zyuratkul. It is the most high-mountain lake of Ural and there is the highest Ural’s crest Nurgush near the lake.
Ten region’s towns are historical settlements. These are Chelyabinsk, Magnitogorsk, Minyar, Keshtym, Zlatoust, Kasli, Troizl, Miass.
Chelyabinsk is a large industrial city with the population over a million. It is one of Russia’s ten largest cities. Chelyabinsk’s history began in 1736. There was laid out a fortress, which later became one of Orenburg’s line fortifications. Ten years later it became the centre of Isetsk province. The city’s and region’s borders changed a lot of times since then but Chelyabinsk was always the capital of Southern Ural’s vast territory.
The city is famous for metallurgy engineering, but despite a great number of plants and factories it is lapped in numerous parks’ and mini-parks’ vegetation, it strikes with varied architecture. Preserved green areas occupy rather a considerable part of the city. Shershnevy burr on the bank of Shershnevoe reservoir and the suburbs of lakes Pervoe are especially interesting. There are located dozens of modern-comfort-level hotels and resort in the green areas.
Chelyabinsk combines perfectly wide prospects and squares with cozy parks and fountains. Y.Gagarin park, which then changes to a city’s burr, arouse tourists’ attention. It makes an unforgettable impression of various marvelous full gallops. It builds up a picturesque water labyrinth among granite cliffs and grandeur pines.
The city’s burr is also interesting for a children’s railway, where the whole service staff is children. A state park named after A.S.Pushkin is an interesting place for walks. Neat park paths run through numerous fountains, concert areas and attractions.
Residential and trading areas have been preserved in the centre; they represent city’s history. One of the ancient streets in Chelyabinsk is the Kirov Street. Once there was an Ufimsky postroad here; there were famous merchants’ houses here. An area from the Miass river to the square of Revolution is a walking area. Nowadays, it is a citizens’ and tourists’ favourite walking place unofficially called Chelyabinsk Arbat. A great number of sculptures gives this city’s part especial tincture: the most interesting is a merchant in a carriage; a snappy dresser in front of a mirror; a governor.
There are 9 theatres, a picture gallery, dozens of museums in the city that prove city’s eventful cultural life. To get familiar with Ural’s wealth you can in geologic-mineral museum. Their exposition consists of a vast collection of semi-precious stones. A wonderful artificial fountain is right opposite the museum.
Chelyabinsk is Southern Ural’s sport capital. Here are built a lot of modern Sports palaces and stadiums. One of the first in Russian stadiums with artificial ice cover has been built in Chelyabinsk.
Chelyabinsk is a perfect place for business tourism. First-class hotels, VIP-halls in airports and full service in conference and other business events’ organization created unbeatable conditions for work and rest.
Tortuga - the name of a pirate island in the Caribbean Sea. Comfortable hotel near the ski slope (8 km). Spacious rooms with all facilities and shower, new furniture, imported facilities, TV. There is a restaurant and bar. Beside the hotel there is an opportunity to put the car. The city has an ice rink, restaurant, swimming pool, sauna. Hotel complex "Tortuga" - is a hotel, 3 rooms restaurant, bar and a pizzeria in the city. In 2008, the hotel was 10 years, the last reconstruction was made 3 years ago, after which it was coined the name, inspired by the notorious film "Pirates of the Caribbean". Design space and the inner atmosphere reigning inside the institution, will allow you to plunge into the atmosphere of maritime adventure and to get real pleasure from our kitchen. In the restaurant you wish to be able to devote to the real pirates!
Hotel services Tortuga
Address: 456010 Chelyabinsk Region, Asha, Nelyubina st., 33
Ski resort "Abzakovo"
is located in the spur of the ancient Ural Mountains, in south-east of Bashkortostan, 30 km. from g.Beloretska and 60 km. from the city of Magnitogorsk. Today, it is the most modern ski complex not only in the Urals, but also in Russia. The unique nature of Bashkortostan, clean air, healthy climate of South Ural with a predominance of clear sunny days give the rest a unique flavor. This created excellent conditions for winter recreation.
The resort - 5 branches Slovak lifts "Tatrapoma". Total capacity - 3000 people / hour. Maximum length - 1194 m. The maximum difference - 311,6 m
All lifts are protected, are equipped with lights and an electronic system for counting the number of tourists in the past.
1A-1B: vertical drop - 311,6 m, length - 1194 m, capacity - 2x900 person / hour, lifting speed, 4,2 m / c, a boom - 4,7 min.
1C: vertical drop - 279 m, length - 935.3 m, capacity - 900 people per hour, lifting speed, 4,5 m / c, a boom - 4 min.
3: Length - 415 m, vertical drop - 126,7 m, capacity - 500 people per hour, rate of climb-3 m / c, recovery time - 2 min 10 sec.
4: length - 170.5 m, its height - 34,2 m, capacity - 400 people per hour, lifting speed, 1,5 m / c, recovery time - 1 min 40 sec.
6: Length - 170 m, vertical drop - 46 m, capacity - 600 people per hour, lifting speed, 1,7 m / c, recovery time - 2 min 30 sec.
5: The pair-passenger chairlift from the "House of Rest", length - 2200, vertical drop - 257,2 m, capacity - 1000 people per hour, recovery time - 17 min.
2: Length - 120 m, BABY LIFT.
- A system of snow-made, technology HKD - Tatrapoma, including more than 20 plants for the production of snow.
- All routes are preparing snowcat.
- Experienced instructors provide training services and maintenance of skiers on the slopes.
- Flow system with plastic cards and turnstiles, computer controlled, allows the skier to conveniently adjust the number of rides throughout the day to day or season (on the use of hoists on each card is stored in computer memory during the whole season).
- At the foot of the slopes is a cozy cafe.
- Repair of equipment (ski, snowboard) and sales of used equipment.