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Regions of Russia: Bryanskaya region

Bryanskaya region

Region center of Bryanskaya region is Bryansk

Desna RiverThe history of Bryanskaya region goes back toward the end of the X century, when Kiev prince Vladimir intending to subordinate the tribes of vyatichy ordered to build new towns along Desna  and other local Rivers' banks. River's smoothness among the dense forests - so usually appeared the places, where new settlings were raised. Forest and the river gave food to people and served as reliable protection. Furthermore, forest was the basic source of fuel and building materials, and the river served as a basic transport artery.

Fortress the Bryansk was established in 985, the city also played its role as the center of Christianity propagation (initially the religion of vyatichy - cult of Peroun, the God of lightning). Local elders many decades persistently resisted the authority of Kiev princes and the Christianity introduction. One of them, following the historians' version, was the half-legendary "nightingale - robber", who acted in the Bryansk forests.

The initial place of Bryansk city establishment remained unknown for long time . Only in the end of our century archaeologists focused attention on ancient name of one of the settlements, which now forms the part of Bryansk - fortification. Not far away from it, on the The Chashin barrowChashin barrow remainders of very first borough were found. Chashin barrow is a seemingly natural fortress on the steep Desna River bank, it protected Bryansk from two sides by the slopes of deep ravines, and from the third side with a forest. Settling was enclosed by a wooden paling. The annular earthen shaft and the ditch, which separated fortification from the forest, were preserved till the present day. Fortress occupied, as they would say now, strategically key point on the confluence of the Desna and Bolva rivers. The locality was seen for many kilometers all around from its walls. However, the settling was imperceptible from the river, seemingly it hid itself in the thick coastal thickets. Apparently, from this went the name Debryansk (Debry- thickets), Bryn', Bryansk. 

In the end  of Xl century the territory, on which the Bryansk is located, was included into Chernigov principality, after that in 1147 it was conquered by banished Kiev prince Svyatoslav Olgovich. After this, the Bryansk entire century was not mentioned in the chronicles. Tatar - Mongolian invasion did not affect Bryansk. The hordes of enemies did not decide to be deepened into the thicket of Bryansk forests. After crushing defeat by the Tatars of Chernigov and death of Chernigov prince Mikhail, his son, prince Roman moved to Bryansk and established in it his princely throne. Prince Roman was a brave soldier, sly politician and diplomat. He knew how not only to The Svensky Monasteryprotect his land from the Tatar and Lithuanian invasion, but also how to enlarge its borders. At the end Xlll of century it was one of the strongest in Russia. The surrounding cities - Chernigov, Novgorod - Seversky, Smolensk, Kursk, Moscow, Vladimir - were ransacked, and Bryansk flourished. Crafts and trade were developed. Prince achieved a Supreme Power in the region, in fact, being Head of The State. After Chernigov bishop had moved to Bryansk, Bryansk principality became the religious center of the south - western Russia. In year 288 prince Roman established The Svensky monastery in Bryansk. As legend narrates, this monastery is established on the spot of the wonderful enlightenment of prince Roman, achieved by the icon of Our lady from Kiev - Pechersky monastery. Like Chashin Kurgan, the Svensky monastery was situated on the confluence of two rivers, the splendid survey of environments was opened from its walls, and its approaches were protected by chalky steep slopes and impervious thickets.

Being almost in the center of Russian plain, Bryansk since old times had advantageous position and played important role in the protection of the Russian earth and Russian state. The position on the watershed of two large river systems - Dneprovskoy and Volzhskoy - affected its population and economic development. The Dnepr River, into which the Desna River flows, was the main artery of Bryanskaya Region Naturethe Russian plain's western part from the old times.  It connected Bryanskaya region with the Volga River, the Don River, the Western Dvina River, and through them - with The Caspian Sea, The Azov Sea, The Black Sea and The Baltic Sea. Waterway "from a Varangian in Greeks" put the region into the wide circle of commercial relations.
In administrative sense the Bryanskaya region is comparatively young. It was formed on 5 July, 1944, out from the Western parts Orlovskaya region. The Bryanskaya region lies at the western part of the Russian plain, occupying the middle part of the Desna river-bed and the wooded watershed between it and the Oka River.
Being located on the joint of three republics and two natural zones, region has rich and diverse nature. All types of the forests are possible to be met here: the conifer, mixed, broad-leaved, and also wooded plain and cultural steppe. On the left bank of the Desna River the pine forests of Bryansk forest tract strike with their cleanliness and order.


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