Dagestan, as Caucasus itself attracted tourists from early ages. Everyone who comes to Dagestan, the most southern republic of Russian Federation will have unforgettable impressions.
The word Dagestan is translated as a “country of mountains”. It’s a bright world full of amazing contrasts, unique landscapes, rare animals and plants; here out of every four days three are sunny; outstanding panorama of Eastern Slope of the Great Caucasian Mountains, the shore of Caspian Sea, generous Sun- all this attracts tourists for rest and travel throughout Dagestan.
Dagestan joined to Russia as Dagestanskaya region as a result of Caucasus wars (1834-1859). The republic of Dagestan is a constituent of the RF, situated in the North Caucasus. It borders on 5 states - Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, inside Russia - on Stavropolsky region, Kalmykiya and Chechnya. Length of the territory from north to south is 400 km, from west to east -200 km. In the east Dagestan is washed by the Caspian Sea. The south boundary goes through the range of the North Caucasus. Area of the Republic - 50.3 thousand sq. km. Dagestan is the largest republic in the North Caucasus.
Dagestan includes 5 climatic and geographic zones: from subtropical and Pricaspian lowlands, located 28 metres below the World Ocean, to snowy peaks with height of more than 4 thousand metres. The largest rivers are the Terek, the Sulak, the Samur. The rivers are widely used for building hydro electric stations and water supply. Geographic position, the relief and waters of the Caspian Sea make the climate of Dagestan diverse. Summer is warm and long. Among minerals the most valuable are reserves of oil, gas and coal.
Dagestan is one of the most complicated regions in ethnic sphere: there are more than 100 nationalities and peoples. Population - 2.1 million people (1.2% of population of the RF), among them 58% live in village. Density of population is 42.5 persons per sq. km. Nowhere in the world so many people live in such a small territory. Main religions are Islam, Christianity and Judaism.
Located in junction of Europe and Asia, Dagestan belongs to the West and to the East. Dagestan is unique by diversity of cultures and peoples, who make united society. So Dagestan has one more name - "Mountain of Languages". The Republic is "the museum under the sky", keeping a lot of secrets. Life of highlanders can be called "the phenomenon of Dagestan civilization".
The capital of Daghestan, Makhachkala, stands at the foot of Tarkitau mountain. The city was established in 1844, when a military fortress Petrovskoe was built here. The fortress was called Andzhi-Kala (a flour fortress). In 1857 a settlement at the fortress was given a status of a city and was called Petrovsk-Port. Its contemporary name the capital received because of revolution events. In 1921 the city was renamed in honour of an active warrior Makhach Dakhadaev. Today Makhachkala is a large post of the Caspian Sea and a developed industrial centre with the population of 500 000.
Makhachkala is situated in an incredibly picturesque place. Foothills of the Big Caucasus tower over the city, the city’s quay opens a wonderful view over the Caspian Sea. Makhachkala dives into the green. The city is originally planned with the centre at the sea. This is another reason for tourists and citizens to enjoy walking along the quay.
The city is one of the largest cultural cities of the Caucasus. Here are situated many monuments of moslem architecture. The central mosque of Imam Shamil arouses especial interest.
There are a lot one- and two-storey houses in the city. They are made out of dark-yellow limestone. They were very common buildings in the 19th century. National trends, shown in decorative ornaments, are represented in civil architecture.
Makhachkala is a big sea resort. The city is abundant with mineral waters and sulphide peloids. A well-known balneological resort Talgi stands 18 km of the capital .
Visiting Makhachkala, you will discover a wonderful world of rich traditions. This city with developed tourist infrastructure will be interesting both for gorgeous beach lovers and for extreme fans.