Stavropolsky Region has the unique geographical position. It stands on the 45th parallel, in the borderline between Europe and Asia, the Black and Caspian Seas. The Great Silk Way crossed the territory in ancient times.
Before the second half of XVIII century the land down the Volga, Don and Kuban rivers was sparsely populated, because the largest part of it was under the Golden Horde. Turkey declared war on Russia in 1768 but was defeated by Russian troops under P.A.Rumyantsev and A.V.Suvorov.
According to the peace treaty of 1774 Turkey lost its power over Crimea and acknowledged the new border between Russian and Turkey.
Afterward the terriotry of Great Caucausus was thoroughly inhabitated by Russians and Ukranians. By Catherine II royal decree the Stavropol fortress was built to become the part of Azov-Mizdok line. Lately the administrative centre of the territory, Stavropol, was founded around this fortress.
The population of the region was multinational with different ethnic and religious traditions coexisting side by side.
The Stavropolsky Region was famous by such personalities as sister of Mercy, Ivanova R.M., general Apanasenko R.Y., famous writer, Nobelist Solzhenitsyn A.I., Burmistrov I.A who was the first to be given the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union, famous surgeon Petrovskii B.V. and St. Feodosii of the Caucausus. The famous politicians from the Stavropolsky Region were Andropov Y.V., General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev M.S., General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the first President of the USSR and Nobel Prize winner, etc.
The Stavropolsky Region plays the important geopolitical role in Russia today bordering with nine subjects of the Russian Federation, providing effective business cooperation, goods and finances flows both at home and foreign markets.
Population of the region - 2,7 million; total area - 66,2 sq.km.; border line - 1500km.; average age of employees - 39.
The Stavropolsky Region has always been the breadbasket and the beauty of Russia.
The Stavropolsky region is famous for splendid nature resources, which have made it the largest resort centre in Russia. Resort cities Pyatigorsk, Kislovodsk, Essentuki, Zheleznovodsk are famous far beyond Russia. All kinds of tourism are actively developed in the region. These places keep the memory of such great Russian people of art as Pushkin, Lermontov, Lev Tolsoty, Shalyapin and Sobinov life and work.
The Stavropolsky region is among Russian leading places in splendid flora and fauna. Region’s landscape strikes with picturesque relief. The Mineral water sloping plain, among which s.c. island mountains protrude, stands out greatly. There are 17 island mountains. The mountains are interesting with their shapes, what such names as Sharp, Blunt, Bull, Camel, Dagger and other prove.
The Stavropolsky region is an attractive hunting and fishing place. It is the only region in Russia, where traditions of tsar hunting on horses and with bounds have been kept. Horse breeding has become wide spread in the region. It is here, in the Tersky stud farm, where world’s known Russian Arab breed is reared.
The Caucasus mountains make the southern part of the region attractive for sport rest. Here are situated famous mountain ski resorts – Dombay and the Elbrus region (Prielbrusje). Elbrus’s snow white peaks have become the symbols of Stavropol resorts. Auronatics, gliding, sky surfing and dirigible flights international competitions take place here as well.
Favourable geographical and climate conditions have attracted people since ancient times. The most ancient settlement is a dwelling site of the Paleolithic age in the region of Mineral Waters town.
Stavropolsky Region has social heritage and old traditions of hospitality. Tourism complex of the region includes resorts and hotels which can accommodate over 30 000 people, there is a great number of tour agencies and operators, 47 motor enterprises, two international airports.
Archaelogical tourism sites - "Tatarskoje Goroditshe", "Krepostnaya Gora" in Stavropol, Majary in Budennovsk region. Ecological tourism sites are Strizhament Mountain, thermal springs, etc. Rich literature and historical legacy of the territory is of great interest for educational tourism.
There are also opportunities for extreme tourism, such as fowling in the Apanasenkovskii region, pighunting in the Predgornyi region. Besides, this is the only place in Russia where you have the unique chance to hunt on horseback with a pack of hounds. The Manych Lake has big potential for hunting tourism.
Aerotourism. The Stavropolsky region possesses the ideal conditions for hang-gliding, paragliding, and balloon and airship flights.
The foreground kinds of tourism are resorts and sanatoriums, where treatment and health improvement with local mineral and mud springs is conducted. There is Tambukan lake, where the only in the world well of healing mineral mud was discovered, is located nor far of Pyatigorsk.
The region of the Caucasus mineral waters had been Russian aristocracy’s rest place since ancient times. It is still makes the Stavropolsky region the largest health improvement centre in Russia. Here, against the mighty Caucasian mountains and quiet river valleys, are located comfy sanatoriums, satisfying contemporary conditions of comfort and service.
Kislovodsk is among the most interesting resorts of the Stavropolsky region. It is situated at the northern foothills of the Great Caucasus and in terraces goes up the slopes of the Dzhinay crest. Here is produces famous mineral water “Narzan”. The city has got its name after the name of the springs (“narzan” has been called “sour water” in Russia since ancient times). The main attractions are Narzan gallery (1848-1858), a poplar alley with the Main narzan bathes buildings along (1901-1904).
Kislovodsk with the suburbs is known for nature monuments. The most interesting among them are Red, Grey and Blue stones, representing relief weathered cliffs, formed of malmrocks.
A famous resort town Pyatigorsk is stretched on the slopes of the Mashuk mountain. Here have been discovered over 40 mineral springs. The most interesting for tourist places are Lermontov’s baths (1826-1831), Diana’s grotto with Dorian columns (1830-1831) and a rotunda summerhouse “Eolus harp” (1831). The southern slope of the mountain is interesting with a karst mine “a Gap”; its depth is 20 meters and there is a tiny lake at the bottom.
Pyatigorsk is tightly connected with the name of M.Y.Lermontov, who spent here a lot of time. Nowadays, there stands an obelisk with a poet’s alto-relievo at the foot of Mashuk. It reminds, that it was the place where the duel he was shot on the 15th of July 1841 took place.
Essentuki is situated on the south of the Stavropol Upland in the river Podkumok valley. Here is produced famous mineral water. This old resort is interesting not only with its health improvement ground. Here has remained the Nikolskaya church built in 1820. One can point out the buildings of the drinking gallery and Nikoev’s baths, the Trade gallery, the pavilions over fresh well-rooms (1912-1912) and a wooden observation colonnade-summerhouse “Oreanda” among other striking architectural monuments.
A picturesque town-resort Zheleznovodsk decorates southern slopes of the mountain Zheleznaya (Iron). Town’s architecture strikes with bright contrasts. The country house of Emir Bukharsky (1907), where a sanatorium and a park with pre-engineered metal Pushkin’s gallery and cascade stairs, decorated with fountains, attracts attention. Starobaryatinskie, Slavyanovskie and Ostrovskie baths decorated the town in the 19th-early 20th centuries.
Visiting the Stavropolsky region, you will get bright impressions about southern Russia’s wealth. The nature itself gives the visitors health and vivacity. The Stavropolsky region impresses with the Caucasian mountains grandeur and various mineral springs; quiet valleys and whimpering waterfalls; archeological findings and ancient architecture. Come to understand, where great poets and writers derived inspiration.