The total area of the region is 36.3 thousand square kilometers. Evreyskaa avtonomnaya region (The Jewish Autonomous AD) is situated in the southern part of the Russian Far East and it has favourable geographical situation. On the west the region borders with the Amur Region, on the east – with the Khabarovsk Territory, on the south its border coincides with the Amur River and the state frontier between Russia and China.
The region is close to the Pacific Ocean and the main economic partners in that region. The Amur River is a way out to the seas of the Pacific Ocean. The Trans-Siberian railroad, which passes across the region’s territory, connects the Western Europe and Middle East with the Pacific Asian region.
The region’s relief is divided into two parts: mountains and plains. Mountains are located in the southern part of the region. The Khingan-Bureinskiy Mountain Range covers more than 1/3 region’s territory. The Lesser Khingan Mountain Range is located almost parallel to it in the northeast: Lesser Khingan, Sutarskiy, Pompeyevskiy and Shuki-Poktoy. Their directions coincide with the general directions of the main mountain ranges of the Far East.
In the south-east of the region there is the Mid-Amur alluvial plain (Amur-Sungariskaya plain). It is generally lowering from 100-150 m at the foothills of the Lesser Khingan to 40-50 m in the Amur flood lands.
The region is one of the most favourable places in the Far East as for climatic conditions. Winter is not snowy but cold. Summer is warm and humid.
The warmest month in the region is July, the coldest month is January. Average temperature of July is +20°C. Maximum temperature is +40°C. Average temperature of January in the south is -24°C. Minimum temperature is -49°C.
The length of winter in the region is from 152 to 165 days. The first autumn frosts start from September 20 to October 7. The land is covered with snow usually at the end of October.
The region’s climate is humid. There is 85% of precipitation during warm period of a year. In the beginning of summer there is not much rain, it causes lack of moisture. But at the end of July and in the beginning of August there is a sharp increasing of precipitation, twice exceeding its standard of the first half of summer. Various districts have different average annual quantity of precipitations (from 644 to 758 mm). Soil may be frozen up to 150-200 cm because of little snow and low temperature. Monsoon rains cause river floods.
From times immemorial in territory of Priamurye not numerous independent tribes (the Daurs, Duchers, Tunguses) lived. They lived according to patrimonial and tribal laws, mainly on river valleys, especially on banks of the Amur River and its tributaries. Since the middle of the 17th century gradual penetration of the Russians in Priamurye began. "Military and industrial people, executing tsar's will, discovered new and new lands". Before them the aim of new places discovering with not tolled population, "the taking them under high and strong tsar's hand" was put.
History of settlement of the territory of the Evreyskaa avtonomnaya region (Jewish Autonomous Region) is closely connected with history of settlement of grounds along the Amur River. It began with the campaign of Vassily Poyarkov, who in June, 1644 boated the Amur River from the Khingan River up to the Tunguska River, made a list to the rivers, and informed that "those lands are crowded, full of bread and sables, and there are a lot of other animals, and those rivers are full of fish". The campaigns of Yerofey Khabarov and his fellows strengthened Russian influence in Priamurye and began the joining of these lands and population to Russia. Soon these places were occupied by people of any estates - fugitive Cossacks, free industrialists, peasants, and Raskolniks.
Establishment of the Jewish Autonomous Region was necessity for more than two millions of the Jews, living in the Soviet Union. They were considered to be foreigners, limited in choice of domicile, possibility of housing accommodation possession. They could farm and be occupied by limited kinds of activity only.
In May, 1928 on Tikhonkaya station, where the Birobidzhan emigrant point was, the first group of settlers from cities and villages of the Ukraine and Byelorussia, central regions of Russia arrived. Simultaneously the state sent machines and necessary means there.
Jewish settlements were created in small villages. They connected the Trans-Siberian railway with the Amur River valley. The epicenter of the Jewish resettlement was Tikhonkaya station (later Birobidzhan city).
Large collective farms and communities were created in Birofeld, Amurzet, Valdgame, Danilovka and other villages.
Since the first days of the Great Patriotic War the economy of the region started to produce goods for front. The carts construction plant produced tyres, grenades, auto trailers and special carts; automobile repair shops produced ammunition, the furniture factory - ski, sanitarian property, and the sewing factory - parachutes, packs etc. More than 12 thousand of region inhabitants were drafted, 7 thousand of them died or were missing, and more than 7 thousand were awarded with orders and medals of the USSR for courage and heroism. 14 persons became Heroes of the Soviet Union, and four persons became holders of a soldier's award of Glory. More than 7 thousand inhabitants of the region were awarded with a medal "For heroic labour during the Great Patriotic War".
On March 31, 1992 the Federal agreement for separation of management and authorities between federal public authorities and government bodies of the Jewish Autonomous Region was signed.
The Jewish Autonomous Region is rich in ecological tourist resources, which have distinctive natural conditions: climate, relief, hydrographic net, flora and fauna and system of protected natural territories.
The following ecological tourist objects are there: natural park “Kuldur”, state natural reserve ”Bastak,” reserves (“Uldury,” “Churki,” “Dichun,” “Shuhipoctoy,” “Zhuravliny,” “Zabelovsky”), 27 monument of nature (lotus lakes, rocky baring, caves, rivers, lakes, mineral deposits), an arboretum, mountains (Kamen Monah, Cherbukondya, Gomel, Ostryak), rivers (Amur, Bira, Bidzhan, Sagdi-Bira, Nikita), archeological monuments and many other things.
The year of 1932 is an official foundation date of Birobidzhan when a village was transformed into a city by a decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. But its history began earlier. First Jewish frontiersmen arrived to a small station Tikhonkaya in 1928. Birobidzhan grew bigger and became an administrative, economical and cultural centre of the Jewish Autonomous region. Nowadays, it is populated with about a thousand people. The city’s emblem is a bald mountain in green colour with a television tower against Menorah (a symbol of the Jewish people) depicted. The Bira river runs at its foothill. When the sun is mirrored in the waters of the Bira River, a view over the bald mountain is especially beautiful. All visitors of Birobidzhan arrive primarily to a railway station, the building of which is a city’s attraction. The railway station is the first stony building in the city built in 1933. It represents a classical sample of the 30s’ monumental architecture. Due to state authority, the exterior of the building has remained in original. Another attraction is situated opposite the main entrance – a fountain, the compositional centre of which is a national symbol – Menorah. At night, when lights are one, the Menorah shines in gold and candles are lit. Almost every tourist, arriving to a new place, wants to learn a lot about it and goes to a regional museum. Such a museum is located in a historical building of Sholom-Aleyman library. This is the building’s history: the People’s commissariat of education was ordered in 1935 to build a library for 500 thousand of books. The library was founded on the base of a city one in 1940. N.N. Krupskaya rendered great help to the regional library establishment. The building took place during the Great Patriotic War and was through by the end of 1944. Besides the library, there was also located the regional museum. The library was open in early 1945. The regional museum was opened on the 10th of June in 1945. There are halls of nature, of the Civil and the Great Patriotic War history, of the region’s development and establishment, in the museum.
Another attraction is a bridge across the Bira river which gives a wonderful view over bald mountains.
Although Birobidzhan’s population is mainly Jewish representatives there are several orthodox churches (a wooden church of St. Nicholas, the Annunciation cathedral, the Chapel in memory of fallen) which stay close to synagogues and Jewish culture’s centres.
There stands a monument not far of Birobidzhan on the top of a famous Volochaevskaya bald mountain. The monument is dedicated to the attack of Volochaevsky fortifications by the partisans and army of the Far Eastern Republic on the 10th-12th February of 1922. The monument in honour of the Volochaevsky battle during the Civil War was erected in 1928. This building is performed as a fortress topped with a sculptural composition. There is located a museum in the building where original showpieces of the battle are exhibited. Jewish culture has become especially developed in recent years. Birobidzhan has been a place where people of different nationalities live in harmony.